Faculty Friday: Brian Dowd-Uribe

Every Friday, the International Studies Department will profile one of our amazing faculty members so you can get to know them better and see all the amazing work our faculty do!

Brian Dowd-Uribe is an Assistant Professor in the International Studies Department. Brian grew in up in Sonoma County, California and decided to change scenery and head to UC San Diego, where he earned undergraduate degrees in Latin American Studies and Ecology, Behavior and Evolution.


As an undergraduate, Brian studied abroad twice to Costa Rica where he completed a senior thesis on different approaches to native forest regeneration in Monteverde, and got a crash course in salsa dancing. After leaving Costa Rica, he served for two years as a Peace Corps Volunteer in a small Kabiye village in northern Togo. While there he worked on multiple projects with local women’s cooperatives on soil fertility, income generation and fuelwood efficiency; he also took up a strong interest in locally brewed sorghum beer. Both the experiences in Costa Rica and West Africa led to a strong interest in rural livelihoods and how rural development intersects with the environment.

After a short two-year stint as a park ranger in South Los Angeles, Brian took up his graduate studies at UC Santa Cruz in Environmental Studies, where he earned his PhD in 2011. His dissertation explores the winners and losers of two of the most defining interventions affecting small-scale farmers in West Africa, the liberalization of agricultural commodity chains and the introduction of genetically modified crops. While conducting his dissertation research in Burkina Faso, he met his future wife, Kim, salsa dancing. Later, they lived together in the capital of Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, and then traveled to Southeast Asia for several months where Brian wrote most of his dissertation.


After graduating, and marrying, Brian took a position as a Post-Doctoral Research Scientist at Columbia University’s Earth Institute. There he worked on two projects, one exploring the social and environmental dimensions of community gardens in East Harlem, and the other examining the linkages between participatory water governance, water security and food security in rural Burkina Faso. Brian continues to work on and publish from both projects. Before joining USF, Brian took a position at the UN-mandated University for Peace in Costa Rica, where he most recently served as Chair of the Department of Environment and Development. Brian’s work has been published in multiple academic journals and was recently featured by the BBC. A new edited book project examining Costa Rica’s attempt to negotiate environmental protection and development is under review at the University of Arizona Press.

tomas-nov-16 benja-4-months

While not grading papers or writing articles, Brian changes the diapers of his 5-month old son Benjamin, and plays trains and baseball with his 3.5-year-old son Tomás. He has a strong interest in everything outdoors – camping, hiking, etc. He also tries to keep up on a regular running regime, and periodically plays soccer for a ‘grown up’ team. Brian and his wife can often be spotted at a local café, sipping on coffee, and plotting their next international adventure.



Faculty Friday: Laleh Shahideh

Every Friday, the International Studies Department will profile one of our amazing faculty members so you can get to know them better and see all the amazing work our faculty do!


Laleh Shahideh is an Assistant Professor in the Department of International Studies at USF.  Prof. Shahideh was born in Tehran, Iran. She pursued her undergraduate studies and lived in Rome for 9 years, where she obtained her Bachelor of Arts degree in Architectural Design from the Academia di Belle Arti di Roma, with a specialization in Interior Architecture from Centro Europeo di Roma.  Soon after the 1978-79 Islamic Revolution in Iran, she returned to her homeland where she redirected her interest and energy by joining the Italian Foreign Ministry in Tehran. This unique professional experience and early exposure to complex foreign diplomacy, immigration issues, and international affairs and relations ignited a dormant desire in her to examine the world from a new perspective.  After living through the Iran/Iraq war for six years, she immigrated to San Francisco and started her career at USF, where she obtained her Master’s degree in Public Administration with an emphasis in Health Administration, and a doctorate in Organization and Leadership, with an emphasis in Pacific Leadership International Studies.

At the beginning of the Fall 2016 semester, she returned to the faculty after two decades working in leadership positions with USF’s Student Academic Services, including her final position as Associate Vice Provost and Dean of Student Academic Services.  Throughout the past 20 years, she skillfully resolved thousands of crisis and complex negotiations and grievances. Thus, there is no surprise for her excitement in having the opportunity to combine the two main areas of her passion into one by sharing – with the students – her knowledge and specialization in crisis intervention, conflict resolution, and mediation in the classroom.

Her personal background and professional experiences have provided her with an exceptionally rich knowledge of cultures in the broader middle east, especially Iran, as well as Europe and the United States.

Prof. Shahideh’s research interests – grounded in the critical hermeneutics theories – include:

  • The role of narrative in global politics.
  • Immigrants’ notions of double identity and belonging: “Being in the World”.
  • The importance of empathy in international relations.
  • The relationship between understanding of power and capacity to act.

As a Fulbright scholar she compared educational systems in the member states of the European Union, especially Germany, and the United States to identify common challenges and best practices.   Professor Shahideh will continue to serve as the faculty adviser for the Persian Iranian Student Club at USF. Shahideh’s additional interests include: The role of historical memory in shaping Iranians’ notion of identity; the place of Iranian women in the Middle East; art in Iran: a medium and not a representational tool. Her book The Power of Iranian Narratives: A Thousand Years of Healing was published by the University Press of America in 2004.


A personal note to the students:  I am delighted and look forward to the opportunity to develop and share an exciting learning experience with you in the classroom.  My personal life experiences and professional and educational background have granted me the fortune and the ability to borrow from a multi-disciplinary array of studies and theoretical frameworks that will help us examine challenges and complexities within international studies and relations.  Having lived through a war, immigrated to two new continents, and having had the privilege to listen to thousands of life stories involving complex and diverse issues, have provided me with a unique perspective and appreciation for the level of complexities within human beings. In order to establish harmonious and healthy relationships, we ought to have healthy environments that are nourishing and tolerant of our needs and our differences.  The world does not suffer because of our differences, rather, the separations and sufferings we witness in the world today are caused by the lack of understanding of our commonalities and our interconnectedness.  I believe the remedy is simple. In fact, it is an ancient one:  Finding love and compassion for Self and Others.

laleh-photo-2My personal interests are: The importance of narrative and learning new languages (I am fluent in Farsi, English, and Italian). I have a strong connection with animals; am a huge fan of soccer; enjoy photography and long walks in nature; practice Pilates and meditation daily; find my “moment of quiet” while swimming; admire good story telling and writing; am a savvy reader; love to cook and enjoy high quality cuisine; am an admirer of art in all forms, love Italian songs and travelling to new places, and love comedies (e.g.; Seinfeld).   I consider my friends and family to be the greatest source of my happiness (particularly, my grandniece (7) and grandnephew (3) who live in Berlin; like my own grandchildren).  Now that I have a more flexible schedule, I am actualizing a long dream of adopting a dog.  Stay tuned, coming soon!  I believe the most difficult, yet rewarding, thing I have accomplished in life is getting to know myself.  I am excited about the new phase of my journey and the new opportunities for self-discovery and rediscovery. Most importantly, I am looking forward to the reciprocal learning experience with my students in the classroom. 

Faculty Friday: John Zarobell

Every Friday, the International Studies Department will profile one of our amazing faculty members so you can get to know them better and see all the amazing work our faculty do!

John at a waterfall in Idaho

John Zarobell is Assistant Professor and Undergraduate Director in the International Studies Department at USF. He studied Studio Art at Hampshire College as an undergraduate and received an MA and PhD History of Art from the University of California at Berkeley.

After a couple of years of teaching at Stanford University, Tulane University and Loyola University, New Orleans, he accepted a position as a curator of European Painting at the Philadelphia Museum of Art where he worked for six years before moving to San Francisco and taking a similar position in the Painting and Sculpture Department at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. While curating blockbuster and international exhibitions, he published his first book in 2010, Empire of Landscape: Space and Ideology in French Colonial Algeria, 1830-1870. During that period he wrote for academic journals, such as Art History and Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide and also began writing art criticism for San Francisco-based art periodicals Art Practical and the San Francisco Arts Quarterly.

John’s exhibition Postcolonial Contemporary at Incline Gallery, 2016

He began teaching in the undergraduate International Studies program (BAIS) in 2011. This interdisciplinary program required him to reframe his body of knowledge and work in between disciplines rather than focusing on art history. That was a welcome change since he had long pursued interdisciplinary research, focusing on issues such as colonialism, cultural and economic history, and geography. He shortly began a research project, titled Art and the Global Economy, that considers how globalization has affected the art world in the last generation, considering primarily institutions, exhibition platforms and the market for contemporary art. His particular interest is to demonstrate the multiple directions of cultural flows as a result of globalization and to circumscribe a counter-hegemonic dimension of the current art world in which formerly peripheral countries are coming to greater prominence and altering its future dynamics. This research has taken him to art events around the world and will be published by University of California Press in 2017. His next projects will be an exhibition on the art developed in emerging Asian megacities as well as a global study of artist collectives.

John with artist Shahzia Sikander in Lahore, Pakistan, 2014

Since coming to USF five years ago, Professor Zarobell has taught sixteen different classes and worked with undergraduates and graduate students in the International Studies department, and also in Museum Studies, Art History and Urban Studies. His areas of interest are global history and globalization, colonialism and imperialism, modern and contemporary art, migration, urban studies, and European studies. He also teaches an International Studies internship for the undergraduates and advises students on getting internships and professional development more generally. He is on the Jobs and Internships Task Force convened by the Career Services Center and so he follows closely the university’s efforts to prepare students for life after college. In his free time, he attends art openings and performances, curates exhibitions in nonprofit galleries, and hikes in the mountains. He no longer makes art but believes that participating in the global conversation about art through his writing will serve not only artists and arts institutions, but will help to promote a richer and more culturally diverse world.

Faculty Friday: Annick T.R. Wibben

Every Friday, the International Studies Department will profile one of our amazing faculty members so you can get to know them better and see all the amazing work our faculty do!


Annick T. R. Wibben is Professor of Politics and International Studies at the University of San Francisco, where she also directs the Peace & Justice Studies program. Originally from Hamburg (Germany), Prof. Wibben went to a bilingual French-German High School and got her Vordiplom in Economics from the University of Hamburg, where she also completed a French specialist language program. She then moved to Finland to study International Relations and European Studies at the University of Tampere. After receiving her Masters of Social Science, she moved again – this time to the small seaside town of Aberystwyth, Wales (UK), where she received here Ph.D. from the oldest Department of International Politics in the world. Fortunately, as a scholar of global politics, she continues to have the opportunity travel around the world to present her work or teach specialized courses.

Before joining the USF faculty in 2005 – indeed, even before she finished her Ph.D., she worked as co-Investigator (with James Der Derian) of the Information Technology, War and Peace Project at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University. She arrived in Providence, Rhode Island, a few weeks before September 11, 2001 and spent much of the first year at the Watson Institute working on rapid analysis of the events of 9/11 – curating an award-winning website which you should check out: infopeace.org. During her time on the East Coast, she also taught at Brown University and Bryant University as well as at Wellesley College where she was a Visiting Assistant Professor. During the fall 2003 semester she was a Rockefeller Humanities Fellow with the National Council for Research on Women and the Center for the Study of Women and Society at the CUNY Graduate Center in in New York City.

Her research straddles critical security and military studies, international theory, and feminist international relations. She also has a keen interest in questions of methodology, representation, and writing. Her current research reflects these varied interests, though she is most frequently associated with the field of Feminist Security Studies, which is the subject of a (free) special virtual issue of Security Dialogue on “A Decade of Feminist Security Studies Revisited” (with Maria Stern). More recently, she has also become involved in debates about feminist foreign (and security) policy, engaging in some non-academic debates also (e.g. “The Value of Feminist Scholarship on SecurityTurkish Weekly, 8 March 2016). Having been interviewed by Swedish National Radio in December 2014 on her research, she has continued to work in this area, leading a webinar on the same topic for the Women’s International League for Peace & Freedom (check it out!).


She has published two books: Feminist Security Studies: A Narrative Approach (2011), which uses 9/11 as a case study to lay out how the way in which dominant security narratives frame events limits our imagination and precludes more creative approaches to address violence, and Researching War: Feminist Methods, Ethics & Politics (2016), an edited collection which showcases the difference that feminist approaches to studying war make in what we can see and how we can move beyond war. Her current research examines the varied experiences of women who have served in the U.S. military during the ‘Global War on Terror’ – here she is interested in connecting servicewomen’s everyday experiences to broader debates about the U.S. military (such as the decision to open all combat positions to women) as well as the deep militarization of U.S. society and its global effects.

As an immigrant, Prof. Wibben is dedicated to learning as much as possible about her adopted home – and to stand in solidarity with its most marginalized communities. This means that she is reading as much as she can about the settler colonial history of the U.S. (and she thinks you should too – you e.g. Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz’ An Indigenous Peoples History of the United States) as well as the native peoples who survived the genocide and still care for the land today (check out the Sogorea Te’ Land Trust initiative here in the Bay Area). She also thinks that #BlackLivesMatter and tries to not only learn more about the continuing impacts of slavery, which find its expression in the unique racialization of U.S. society, but to connect it to the global inequalities that she teaches about.

When she’s not busy with all of the above, Prof. Wibben can be found crossing town with her kids for their various activities, going for walks at Ocean Beach (especially when its foggy & windy, because that reminds her of home), or enjoying a coffee somewhere – preferably in her own back yard so she can check on how things are growing. She is often joined here by her cat, Coco, who loves all things academic (it’s an academicat!).


Faculty Friday: Christopher Loperena

Every Friday, the International Studies Department will profile one of our amazing faculty members so you can get to know them better and see all the amazing work our faculty do!

Faculty Friday Profile: Christopher Loperena


Christopher Loperena is an assistant professor in the International Studies Department and the academic director for the Master of Arts in International Studies program. He received his bachelor’s degree in International Studies from the University of Chicago, with an emphasis on human rights in the Southern Cone of Latin America. After completing college, he co-founded a non-profit organization that provided computer technology training to grassroots organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean. He worked in Honduras and Jamaica before returning to school to pursue a graduate degree at the University of Texas at Austin. He completed his Ph.D. in Social Anthropology in August 2012.

Professor Loperena’s research looks at the socio-spatial politics of development in Latin America. He’s interested in how neoliberal and extractivist development paradigms affect the territorial rights of black and indigenous peoples. His research has appeared or is forthcoming in Current Anthropology, Geoforum, The Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology and Journal of Sustainable Tourism. His most recent publication highlights how neoliberal tourism policies are advanced under the guise of ecotourism and sustainable development, creating the conditions for extractivism to take hold in black and indigenous territories. He challenges the tendency to position tourism, in particular ecotourism, as an alternative to traditional extractive industries.

Currently he is working on two book projects. The first is a single-authored manuscript titled, “A Fragmented Paradise: Race, Territory and Black Autonomy on the Caribbean Coast of Honduras.” Based on over two years of continuous ethnographic research, A Fragmented Paradise examines how struggles over lands that are targeted for tourism development shape the ethics of autonomy in a Garifuna village situated on the white-sand beaches of Tela Bay, Honduras. The second project is an edited volume (with Aída Hernandez Castillo and Mariana Mora) on the use of anthropological knowledge in the adjudication of indigenous and afrodescendant rights.


Professor Loperena is committed to making sure his research has a scholarly impact beyond the academy. Most recently, he provided expert testimony for a Garifuna land rights case before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. He has written affidavits for asylum cases, and he sits on the Board of Directors for Refugee Transitions—a local community-based nonprofit agency serving high-need, low-income refugee, asylee, and immigrant newcomers.

In his free time, Professor Loperena enjoys walking aimlessly through San Francisco’s colorful streets, sampling the city’s many wonderful restaurants, and long runs in Golden Gate Park. He’s also fond of 90s hip hop, salsa, merengue and any music that inspires him to dance!

Faculty Friday: Bill Goldman

Every Friday, the International Studies Department will profile one of our amazing faculty members so you can get to know them better and see all the amazing work our faculty do!

Faculty Friday Profile: Bill Goldman


Bill Goldman is an Assistant Professor of International Studies at USF and the coordinator of the European Studies Program. He grew up in Washington, DC, where no one in his extended family ever worked for the government, and received a BA in History from Yale. After living in Boston for a little while and trying his hand as a sports photographer, Professor Goldman made the smart decision to move to California and work on a PhD from UC Berkeley in early modern European History, which he completed in 2009. His specialty is Spanish foreign policy in the reign of Philip III (r. 1598-1621, for those who don’t know their Spanish Habsburgs), specifically the role of new forms of political thought on political action in the Spanish Empire. His book, Rational Empire, is under consideration at Cambridge University Press.

Professor Goldman has also done significant work on Protestant anti-Spanish rhetoric in the seventeenth century (the Black Legend), and on Spain and the founding of the Jamestown colony. His 2011 article in the William and Mary Quarterly on the topic published the first English map of Jamestown, which was stolen by Spanish spies only months after the colony was founded in 1607. The article also conclusively proves that Philip III, the king of Spain, planned to attack and destroy the Jamestown colony – but was dissuaded by the evident failure of the colony due to disease and mismanagement. By 1612, after English colonists survived their “starving time,” Spain decided not to attack because it did not want to risk a war with England. Professor Goldman loves history that shows how small decisions can sometimes have such outsized effects: if Spain had destroyed Jamestown and colonized North America, it would certainly have altered the history of the entire hemisphere!

Professor Goldman’s current work focuses on one of the main issues of his earlier articles and book: the development of various forms of state sovereignty before and after the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. The goal of this work is to explore what types of sovereignty existed before Westphalia enshrined inviolate state sovereignty in Europe and, through imperial diffusion, the rest of the world. Understanding these alternative forms of sovereignty can help lead to a better understanding of where the concept of sovereignty is headed in a world of non-state actors, the Right to Protect doctrine, failed states, global corporations, and multipolar foreign relations.

In non-academic but related work, Professor Goldman serves on the International Board of the New Israel Fund, a non-profit working for a more just and democratic Israel. NIF funds much of the human rights and civil society infrastructure in Israel, and plays a key role in standing up for minority groups throughout the country. NIF’s mission is in keeping with the social justice focus at USF and with the goals of the International Studies Department, especially the defense of human, women’s, LGBT and refugee rights.

Bill in wig photo

This past summer Professor Goldman was excited to try on a Barrister’s wig in the Inner Temple in London, and to introduce his children, George and Marie, to all the things he and his wife, Serra, love about Spain: the food, flamenco dancing, the unique architecture of Barcelona, and shrimp with their heads still on. George and Marie attend an Italian immersion school in San Francisco, and often wonder why Professor Goldman doesn’t speak Italian as well as they do. He was glad to finally prove to them that he might not speak great Italian, but he does indeed speak Spanish, even with the “crazy accent” of Spaniards. In his spare time, Professor Goldman enjoys choral music, playing catch with George and Marie, and flying airplanes, especially missions for Angel Flight West, a charitable organization that provides transportation for critically ill patients and their families. This fall you can find him obsessively immersed in the presidential election and all forms of politics, and very much looking for November 8th to come as quickly as possible.

Bill and George

Faculty Friday: Dana Zartner

Every Friday, the International Studies Department will profile one of our amazing faculty members so you can get to know them better and see all the amazing work our faculty do!

Faculty Friday Profile: Dana Zartner

Dana - UN

Dana Zartner is an Associate Professor in the International Studies Department and an Adjunct Professor in the School of Law at the University of San Francisco. Professor Zartner grew up in Dayton, Minnesota (about an hour north of Minneapolis) and went to Hamline University in St. Paul where she received a BA in International Relations with a minor in French. After receiving a law degree from Boston University, Professor Zartner worked as an immigration attorney in Northern California, specializing in green card applications for ‘Individuals of Extraordinary Ability’ and ‘Outstanding Professors and Researchers’ and asylum cases. After five years as an attorney, she decided to return to academia and received a Ph.D. in Political Science from UC Davis.


Professor Zartner specializes in international and comparative law, with a focus on environmental protections and human rights. Her primary interest lies in understanding how we can better implement positive international human rights laws and environmental protections at the domestic level. Using an interdisciplinary approach that considers both legal cultures and legal institutions within states, Professor Zartner’s first book Courts, Codes, and Custom: Legal Tradition and State Policy Toward International Human Rights and Environmental Law (Oxford University Press, 2014) considers ten different countries across five different legal traditions (common law, civil law, Islamic law, East Asian law, and mixed traditions) to understand why some states are better at internalizing international law than others. She has also done work on the role of legal culture in shaping transitional justice in the aftermath of crises, and the institutional factors that best facilitate treaty compliance in the case of the Convention Against Torture.

Professor Zartner’s current research focuses more on the environment and the relationship between a healthy environment and the achievement of other human rights. She is fascinated by the question of how we can use indigenous, religious, and cultural understandings of the natural world as important in its own right to overcome current ideas that nature is simply a commodity to create better law and policy that protects both the environment and human rights. She was very inspired by a trip to Cambodia this past summer and meeting a forest-saving monk who has created a community forest in the middle of massive deforestation and blesses trees to ensure they are protected.

Cambodia Monk

A proponent of the benefits of working through both local and global institutions, Professor Zartner has attended, as an NGO delegate, a number of United Nations meetings, including the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Geneva in 2015 and the Committee on the Status of Women in New York in 2016. While the UN system has its problems and works slowly, she believes that the opportunities afforded global civil society in attending these meetings, having the opportunity to connect with other groups to share ideas and resources, and interact with State delegates, is a vitally important component of promoting and protecting human rights, environmental rights, and indigenous rights. Her hope for the future is to be able to take USF students along on these trips.

In her free time, Professor Zartner plays golf badly and has learned four notes on her guitar. She thinks San Francisco is the best place in the world (along with Italy and New Zealand, well … and now Cambodia) and loves the combination of big city and big nature that we have here. A lover of wine and good food, particularly Italian cuisine, she makes very authentic lasagna and will on occasion host department parties at her house. She sort-of speaks Italian, largely learning from watching US comedies dubbed into Italian and Italian game shows. She thinks animals are awesome and has a cat named Viggio who likes to eat asparagus, bell pepper, and blueberries. She also loves The Walking Dead, all things Middle Earth, and the Tenth Doctor.


Can GM crops help African farmers?

Written by Professor Brian Dowd-Uribe

Since serving in the Peace Corps in Togo, West Africa, I have been very interested in schemes to improve food security in rural Africa. One of the most promoted schemes is the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. Proponents like Robert Paarlberg and Calestous Juma claim that they are needed technologies to boost agricultural productivity and address regional food insecurities. Moreover they claim there is a moral imperative to make these useful technologies available to poor farmers. If they are good for Global North productivity, why can’t they help African productivity? On the other hand, opponents such as Vandana Shiva and a host of non-governmental organizations claim they will primarily benefit the relatively rich at the expense of poor peasant farmers.

Before diving in to the debate, we should first explore whether GM crops have been adopted in Africa, and what we know about their performance. To date, only two GM crops – insect-resistant forms of cotton and maize – have made it into the hands of African farmers. Of these, GM cotton has the longest empirical track record, having been the first GM crop ever introduced in Africa, and the only one that has been grown in multiple countries – first South Africa, then Burkina Faso. The performance of this crop has received intense scrutiny, as it offers the best indication of how the suite of other GM crops slated for commercial approval may perform across the continent.


In 2003, Burkina Faso, in partnership with Monsanto, became one of the first African countries to begin field trials of Bt cotton, the most commonly grown GM crop in the developing world. Bt refers to a toxin – Bacillus thuringiensis – that kills one of the world’s most common and pernicious cotton pests, the bollworm. Monsanto agreed to backcross the Bt gene onto local Burkinabè varieties, which were subsequently released to farmers in 2008. With more than 140,000 smallholder farmers cultivating Bt cotton, Burkina Faso has the largest number of total GM crops producers on the African continent, and is celebrated as an example for how GM crops can help poor farmers.

Farmers have enthusiastically adopted the technology, and for good reason. Despite the very high cost of Bt cotton seed, studies show that Bt cotton has increased yields and profits – with an average Bt cotton farming family gaining 50% more profit than from conventional cotton. Moreover, Bt cotton growers use significantly less noxious pesticides. The total number of sprayings has gone down from 6 to 2, reducing exposure of damaging chemicals and saving valuable labour time. Other studies, including my own work, acknowledges these benefits, but questions whether this is the most equitable development strategy; it may benefit principally those farmers who are already doing well – and be too risky of an investment for those farmers with small plots of land or less capital.


But the development outcomes of Bt cotton in Burkina Faso may soon be a thing of the past. Our recently published work reports that the inferior lint quality of Bt cotton has caused severe economic losses for Burkinabè cotton companies prompting a complete phase out of all Bt cotton production over the next two years. Company officials and Monsanto representatives cite two problems with lint quality. First, Bt varietals produce shorter, less desirable lint. The shorter length means poorer quality, which in turn means a lower price on the international market. Second, even though cotton yields are up, the amount of lint ginning machines is able to extract from the picked cotton has diminished. In other words, Bt cotton produces both less cotton lint, and lint of an inferior quality.

Continue reading “Can GM crops help African farmers?”